Research Papers

For more than twenty years, researchers and clinicians have relied on Bertec products, and have shared their findings and published papers.

Share your thoughts or research findings that include a Bertec product by sending a copy (.pdf format please) to

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ASME Conference

Robinovitch 2001 :

Impact severity during a backward fall depends on the timing of the “squat” protective response during descent
 (111.18 kilobytes)

Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica

Gok 2002 :

Kinetic and kinematic characteristics of gait in patients with medial knee arthrosis
 (158.72 kilobytes)

Acta Otolaryngologica

Ardic 2000 :

Paraspinal muscle response to electrical vestibular stimulation
 (800.44 kilobytes)

Advance for Directors of Rehabilitation

Esquenazi 2006 :

Gait training enters the high-tech age
 (184.2 kilobytes)

American Journal of Human Biology

Benderlioglu 2004 :

Digit length ratios predict reactive aggression in women, but not in men
 (137.47 kilobytes)

American Journal of Sports Medicine

Bush-Joseph 2001 :

Dynamic function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autologous patellar tendon
 (1021.13 kilobytes)
Chappell 2002 :

A comparison of knee kinetics between male and female recreational athletes in stop-jump tasks
 (141.15 kilobytes)
Decker 1999 :

Serratus anterior muscle activity during selected rehabilitation exercises
 (133.16 kilobytes)
Decker 2003 :

Subscapularis muscle activity during selected rehabilitation exercises
 (319.87 kilobytes)
Hooper 2001 :

Open and closed kinetic chain exercises in the early period after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
 (75.28 kilobytes)
MacWilliams 1998 :

Characteristic Ground-Reaction Forces in Baseball Pitching
 (164.9 kilobytes)
Noyes 2000 :

High Tibial osteotomy and Ligament reconstruction for varus angulated anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees
 (463.97 kilobytes)
Pollo 2002 :

Reduction of medial compartment loads with valgus bracing of the osteoarthritic knee
 (267.74 kilobytes)
Yu 2004 :

Immediate effects of a knee brace with a constraint to knee extension on knee kinematics and ground reaction forces in a stop-jump task
 (92.96 kilobytes)

Applied Ergonomics

Cutlip 2000 :

A comparison of different postures for scaffold end-frame disassembly
 (354.75 kilobytes)
Cutlip 2002 :

Optimal hand locations for safe scaffold-end-frame disassembly
 (226.93 kilobytes)


Clayton-Equine Locomotion Book Chapter ISBN070202483 :

Chapter 3: Measurement Techniques for Gait Analysis (by Clayton)
 (836.75 kilobytes)

British Journal of Psychology

Maylor 2001 :

Effects of spatial and nonspatial cognitive activity on postural stability
 (309.76 kilobytes)

Clinical Biomechanics

Andriacchi 1996 :

Evaluation of alternative marking/processing protocols to derive joint spatial data (abstract)
 (128.9 kilobytes)
Chiari 2002 :

Stabilometric parameters are affected by anthropometry and foot placement
 (384.57 kilobytes)
Davis 1998 :

Evaluation of spinal loading during lowering and lifting
 (891.33 kilobytes)
Jorgensen 2000 :

The effect of lumbar back support tension on trunk muscle activity
 (64.16 kilobytes)
Mackey 2005 :

Postural steadiness during quiet stance does not associate with ability to recover balance in older women
 (262.31 kilobytes)
Otis 1996 :

Load sharing at the knee during valgus bracing for medial compartment osteoarthritis (abstract)
 (130.15 kilobytes)
Whittle 1997 :

Force platform measurement of the heelstrike transient in normal walking (abstract)
 (232.97 kilobytes)
Yavuzer 2006 :

The effects of balance training on gait late after stroke: a randomized controlled trial
 (258.14 kilobytes)


Duarte 2000 :

Stabilographic analysis of unconstrained standing
 (292.67 kilobytes)
Ferguson 2002 :

Spinal loading when lifting from industrial storage bins
 (558.05 kilobytes)
Hanson 1999 :

Predicting slips and falls considering required and available friction
 (290.81 kilobytes)
Pline 2006 :

Influence of fatigue time and level on increases in postural sway
 (431.47 kilobytes)

Experimental Brain Research

Clapp 1999 :

Light touch contributions to balance in normal bipedal stance
 (58.48 kilobytes)
Duarte 2002 :

Effects of body lean and visual information on the equilibrium maintenance during stance
 (295 kilobytes)
Elger 1999 :

Integration of the hand in postural reactions to sustained sideways force at the pelvis
 (135.38 kilobytes)
Gilles 1999 :

Lateral balance organisation in human stance in response to a random or predictable perturbation
 (154.42 kilobytes)
Scholz 2001 :

Effects of varying task constraints on solutions to joint coordination in a sit-to-stand task
 (339.9 kilobytes)
Wing 1997 :

Anticipatory postural adjustments in stance and grip Gait and Posture
 (568.07 kilobytes)


Edginton 2007 :

Usage of fractal analysis in evaluating health and disease
 (71.91 kilobytes)

Gait and Posture

Cham 2002 :

Heel contact dynamics during slip events on level and inclined surfaces
 (330.94 kilobytes)
Chiari 2000 :

An improved technique for the extraction of stochastic parameters from stabilograms
 (134.43 kilobytes)
Chou 2004 :

Dynamic instability during obstacle crossing following traumatic brain injury
 (218.74 kilobytes)
Conforto 2001 :

Hemodynamics as a possible internal mechanical disturbance to balance
 (199.18 kilobytes)
Feldman 2005 :

Neuromuscular versus behavioural influences on reaching performance in young and elderly women
 (380.83 kilobytes)
Growney 1997 :

Repeated measures of adult normal walking using a video tracking system
 (1.32 megabytes)
Hof 2005 :

Assessment of two-dimensional induced accelerations from measured kinematic and kinetic data
 (345.73 kilobytes)
Kim 2003 :

Symmetry in vertical ground reaction force is accompanied by symmetry in temporal but not distance variables of gait in persons with stroke
 (258.4 kilobytes)
Kim 2004 :

Magnitude and pattern of 3D kinematic and kinetic gait profiles in persons with stroke: relationship to walking speed
 (208.69 kilobytes)
King 1997 :

Extracting gravity line displacement from stabilographic recordings
 (826.75 kilobytes)
King 2002 :

Periods of extreme ankle displacement during one-legged standing
 (182.92 kilobytes)
Lomaglio 2005 :

Muscle strength and weight-bearing symmetry relate to sit-to-stand performance in individuals with stroke
 (126.83 kilobytes)
Manal 2002 :

Knee moment profiles during walking: errors due to soft tissue movement of the shank and the influence of the reference coordinate system
 (329.96 kilobytes)
Mazza 2005 :

Sequencing sit-to-stand and upright posture for mobility limitation assessment: determination of the timing of the task phases from force platform data
 (168.89 kilobytes)
Reisman 2002 :

Coordination underlying the control of whole body momentum during sit-to-stand
 (280.35 kilobytes)
Schrodt 2004 :

Characteristics of stepping over an obstacle in community dwelling older adults under dual-task conditions
 (98 kilobytes)
Tokuno 2003 :

Postural and movement adaptations by individuals with a unilateral below-knee amputation during gait initiation
 (279.32 kilobytes)
Williams 2004 :

High-arched runners exhibit increased leg stiffness compared to low-arched runners
 (123.84 kilobytes)

Hormones and Behavior

Benderlioglu 2004 :

Digit length ratios predict reactive aggression in women, but not in men
 (203.9 kilobytes)

Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing

Marras 1997 :

A non-MVC EMG normalization technique for the trunk musculature: Part 2. Validation and use to predict spinal loads
 (353.63 kilobytes)

Human Movement Science

Chiari 2000 :

Classification of visual strategies in human postural control by stochastic parameters
 (265.7 kilobytes)
Whittle 1997 :

Three-dimensional motion of the center of gravity of the body during walking
 (346.9 kilobytes)

Journal of American Geriatrics Society

Marigold 2005 :

Exercise leads to faster postural reflexes, improved balance and mobility, and fewer falls in older persons with chronic stroke
 (120.49 kilobytes)

Journal of Anxiety Disorders

Jacob 1995 :

Optic flow-induced sway in anxiety disorders associated with space and motion discomfort
 (682.63 kilobytes)

Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

Anderson 2001 :

Dynamic optimization of human walking
 (228.8 kilobytes)

Journal of Biomechanics

Cham 2001 :

Lower extremity corrective reactions to slip events
 (261.95 kilobytes)
Fathallah 1997 :

A method for measuring external spinal loads during unconstrained free-dynamic lifting
 (268.26 kilobytes)
Geil 2000 :

Comparison of methods for the calculation of energy storage and return in a dynamic elastic response prosthesis
 (134.78 kilobytes)
Granata 1996 :

A method for measuring external loads during dynamic lifting exertions
 (405 kilobytes)
Hughes 2000 :

Effect of optimizing criterion on spinal force estimates during asymmetric lifting
 (194.17 kilobytes)
Hurwitz 1998 (January) :

Dynamic knee loads during gait predict proximal tibial bone distribution
 (239.6 kilobytes)
Hurwitz 1998 (June) :

Hip motion and moments during gait relate directly to proximal femoral bone mineral density in patients with hip osteoarthritis
 (615.13 kilobytes)
Hurwitz 2003 :

A new parametric approach for modeling hip forces during gait
 (284.75 kilobytes)
Marras 1997 :

Spine loading during trunk lateral bending motions
 (780.44 kilobytes)
Moisio 2003 :

Normalization of joint moments during gait: a comparison of two techniques
 (100.97 kilobytes)
Papa 1999 :

A telescopic inverted-pendulum model of the musculo-skeletal system and its use for the analysis of the sit-to-stand motor task
 (384.74 kilobytes)
Robinovitch 2000 :

Impact severity in self-initiated sits and falls associated with center-of-gravity excursion during descent
 (263.25 kilobytes)
Yu 1996 :

Calibration of measured center of pressure of a new stairway design for kinetic analysis of stair climbing
 (289.95 kilobytes)

Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology

Marras 2001 :

A non-MVC EMG normalization technique for the trunk musculature: Part 2. Validation and use to predict spinal loads
 (191.8 kilobytes)

Journal of Occupational Rehab

Rogers 2001 :

Training to reduce postural sway and increase functional reach in the elderly
 (37.11 kilobytes)

Journal of Orthopaedic Research

Nagura 2002 :

Mechanical loads at the knee joint during deep flexion
 (443.57 kilobytes)

Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy

Tsai 2006 :

Comparison of different structural foot types for measures of standing postural control
 (542.15 kilobytes)

Journal of Rehab Research and Development

Finley 2002 :

Reliability of biomechanical variables during wheelchair ergometry testing
 (103.43 kilobytes)
Rodgers 2001 :

Influence of training on biomechanics of wheelchair propulsion
 (58.6 kilobytes)

Journal of Sports Rehabilitation

Powers 2004 :

Six weeks of strength and proprioception training does not affect muscle fatigue and static balance in functional ankle instability
 (4.29 megabytes)

Journal of Sports Sciences

Abraham 2001 :

Communications to the annual conference of the British association of sport and exercise sciences (BASES)
 (260.86 kilobytes)

Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

Rudolph 2000 :

Dynamic stability after ACL injury: who can hop?
 (125.3 kilobytes)
Rudolph 2001 :

Dynamic stability in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee
 (227.83 kilobytes)


Girardi 2002 :

The BalanceTrak 500 normative data
 (3.67 megabytes)

Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science

Aragon-Vargas 2000 :

Evaluation of four vertical jump tests: methodology, reliability, validity, and accuracy
 (51.14 kilobytes)


Shafiq 2001 :

Marker detection and trajectory generation algorithms for a multicamera based gait analysis system
 (996.83 kilobytes)

Medical Engineering and Physics

Borzelli 1999 :

Inter- and intra-individual variability of ground reaction forces during sit-to-stand with principal component analysis
 (138.02 kilobytes)

Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing

Cappello 2004 :

Periodical in-situ re-calibration of force platforms: a new method for the robust estimation of the calibration matrix
 (241.76 kilobytes)
Rocchi 2004 :

Feature selection of stabilometric parameters based on principal component analysis
 (327.34 kilobytes)

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Hunter 2004 :

Interaction of step length and step rate during sprint running
 (285.64 kilobytes)
Kernozek 2005 :

Gender differences in frontal and sagittal plane biomechanics during drop landings
Kraemer 2000 :

Influence of compression hosiery on physiological response to standing fatigue in women
 (1.32 megabytes)

Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery

Amin-Otolaryngology 2000 :

Normative data for Balance Track 500 (abstract)
 (1.34 megabytes)

Otology and Neurotology

Amin 2002 :

A comparison of electronystagmography results with posturography findings from the BalanceTrak 500
 (3.6 megabytes)

Philosophical Transactions Royal Society of London

Otten 1999 :

Balancing on a narrow ridge: biomechanics and control
 (744.83 kilobytes)

Reviews in Clinical Gerontology

Baloh 2002 :

Disequilibrium and gait disorders in older people
 (158.81 kilobytes)

Safety Science

Cham 2002 :

Heel contact dynamics during slip events on level and inclined surfaces
 (281.93 kilobytes)

Surgical Endoscopy

Gillette 2003 :

Changes in postural mechanics associated with different types of minimally invasive surgical training exercises
 (135.49 kilobytes)

The Laryngoscope

Girardi 2001 :

Predicting fall risks in an elderly population: computer dynamic posturography versus electronystagmography test results
 (3.82 megabytes)

University of Delaware Publications

Benoit 2006 :

An integrated approach for improving gait in a stroke population: combining robotics, FES and neuromusculoskeletal
 (396.23 kilobytes)
Zeni 2006 :

Familiarization to walking on a split-belt treadmill: kinetics, kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters
 (21.3 kilobytes)

Bertec Publications

Periodically Bertec publishes papers relating to our in-house testing and new products. The following are a few of these articles.

Better Fits for Lower-limb Prosthetics :

Better fits for lower-limb prosthetics
 (88.56 kilobytes)
Collecting Valid Data from Force Plates :

Collecting valid data from force plates: how many subjects must alter their gait?
 (449.71 kilobytes)
Eye Motion Parameters Correlate with Level of Experience :

Eye motion parameters correlate with level of experience in video-assisted surgery: objective testing of three tasks
 (113.81 kilobytes)
Instrumented Treadmills Reducing the Need for Gait Labs :

Instrumented treadmills: reducing the need for gait labs
 (72.09 kilobytes)
Probability of Valid Gait Data Acquisition :

Probability of valid gait data acquisition using currently available force plates
 (1.4 megabytes)